The chemistry of magical facilitation (2b) – And play more with the BOSSY HERALD!

Participants: Who are they? What are they coming for? (credits: ILRI)

Participants: Who are they? What are they coming for? (credits: ILRI)

In the second part of this second chapter on the chemistry of magical (event) facilitation, I will examine the attendance (the participants), the location and the dynamics of the event, the other three crucial elements to make the HERALD play for you, as well as the matter at hand: the content.

Attendance (the participants)

The people that participate to your event are perhaps the most important and delicate part behind the success (or failure) of your entire event because you can prepare and mould every other bit of the event, but not your participants.

So when looking at your attendance, think about: presence, profile and relation (both now and after the event).

Presence of participants
Presence relates both to their physical and to their emotional/intellectual presence.

First of all, you need the physical presence of your participants. How many are planning to come? How many are effectively coming? There are always last minute cancellations or problems… Knowing the approximate number at earliest will help you design the workshop and find most appropriate facilitation approaches, methods and tools – and a venue that can host them all.

Secondly, what really motivates them to attend the event? Did they come on their own volition or were they sent to ‘represent’ their organisation?  Were they sent ‘to be trained’ on something? You need participants that emotionally or intellectually connect with the agenda (or with other participants) so they are interested and willing to learn and do something during the event.

In addition, what might be their ‘secret agenda? Some consultants come to events to sell their services (which is fair enough but it helps knowing this upfront), others come just to find out who is in a network etc. Knowing what your participants are in it for is not easy but it makes your event easier to design and the dynamics you shape straightforward too.

Ideally you end up with active, motivated, curious, knowledgeable, keen on sharing, respectful, humble participants – the recipe for their learning and interaction. They have to play the game of the event and should be happy to do so.

The selection of participants – particularly for training courses – is crucial in this regard. The worst case scenario is if you end up with people sent to the event without any personal interest (n)or prior information about it: you then usually end up with a very difficult event (because participants are not motivated) or a rather ineffective event (because beyond the event, the persons are very likely not to bring anything back in their (net)work). If you can, help select the people that come over; if you can, include an exercise where the profile and the aspirations of your crowd becomes more obvious.

What is the profile of your participants?
Once you have participants, you need to understand who they really are:

  • What country do they come from? What country are they working in? Do you know about their cultural background and are there any specific things you need to keep in mind (in relation to ease or difficulty in public speaking, specific rituals, degree of formality etc.)?
  • Do they feel comfortable with the language(s) used in the event?
  • Are they self-employed? Do they represent an organisation – thus perhaps an organisational mandate?
  • Are they men or women (I recently ended up facilitating a workshop for 45 participants of which only 2 were women!!)?
  • Are they junior or senior? If the latter, can they actually move, see and hear well?
  • What decision-making power do they have? This might affect your potential to draw plans and assign responsibilities, if that is part of the plans.
  • How high are they in their hierarchy and how much should you pay attention to that hierarchy? I, for one, always try to bring down hierarchical barriers in the workshops I facilitate, but sometimes you cannot avoid the cultural sensitivities to prestige and seniority.
  • Crucially: how knowledgeable are they about the topic / focus of the event? How much do they know about it and how much do they have to say something about it because they are ‘experts’ (it always helps to find out who are the resource persons because they might take a lot of time to speak publicly)?
  • Are they introverts or extroverts? One doesn’t facilitate the same way for both groups – as suggested in this blog post.
  • Do they tend to agree or disagree? There are natural ‘devil’s advocates’ which can greatly help but can also disrupt the dynamics you set, recognise it upfront.
  • How big of an ego do they have – who might be the ‘difficult material’ to play with here?

Relations (before, during and after the event)

How much do participants know and engage with each other before, during and after the event?

  • How much do they already know each other?
  • Do they come from the same institutions or different ones? If from the same institution, do they come from the same (e.g. country) office?
  • Are they all working on the same initiative?
  • Do they have similar or different professional functions? In other words is this an audience of peers, which allows you to assume they share some jargon and approaches?
  • Do they all speak the same language?
  • How much of a common culture do they share?
  • Is there a hierarchy among them and should it matter in this workshop?
  • Are there tensions among them?
  • Do they need to develop strong relationships during the event because they will work together afterwards?
  • Can you build engagement before the event e.g. by means of online discussions, a phone conference, reactions to a blog, sharing their personal online profile etc.?
  • What follow-up activities might bring (some of) these people together again?
Once you know who you’re dealing with, it becomes much easier to know which approaches to use or to avoid.
Location (the venue)
Pick your venue carefully (credits: Dave Murr/FlickR)

Pick your venue carefully (credits: Dave Murr/FlickR)

This is an often overlooked aspect and yet it can have so much impact on an event positively (usually without participants noticing) or negatively (usually with participants noticeably complaining about it) .

From the participants’ perspective, it helps a lot when the venue is: quiet; open, with a lot of space (not confined, which drives claustrophobic participants crazy) and can anyway easily host the amount of attending participants; located in a beautiful area, particularly for a retreat where people need to find peace of mind and inspiration; possesses an outdoor space, even a forest or a beach, where you might want to organise some activities too; has enough natural light – or a great artificial lighting system – to not tire them too quickly.

From the facilitator’s perspective, all the above applies, but it’s also important that the venue: is modular, with tables and chairs that can be rearranged at will (unlike conference venues with translation facilities and fixed desks chained to one another – as we know that the administration of chairs matters a lot!), doesn’t have pillars blocking the sight; has walls that can easily be used to pin sheets and cards etc.; has extra space, possibly other rooms for break-out groups or spectrum exercises or energisers thtat require space – outside facilities are even better if the venue (and weather!) allows; has great acoustics (do you need a microphone?); has a good internet connection and all other facilities required: video projector and screen, laser pointer, flipchart and sheets, markers, colour cards, post-it notes, translating equipment if required, conference audio system or mini speakers, microphones etc.

Once that is checked, you can think about the final bit before – and influencing your choice of – facilitation approaches: the dynamics.

Dynamics (the conversation style)

You can decide to stimulate a certain conversation dynamics for your entire workshop (and for each session, related to a facilitation method) so what kind of conversation dynamics do you really want to encourage for your event?

  • Is it an exploratory event, where you want everyone to question openly, blue-sky, brainstorm and unearth new possibilities?
  • Is it an informational event, where you want participants to learn more about a given issue?
  • Is it a vocational event, where you want participants to learn new know-how for their work – i.e. is it a training event?
  • Is it a reactive event, where you want them all to give their opinions about, criticise or question a specific event, a document, a proposal, a law, an idea, a movement etc.?

In addition: Is it a meant to be a productive (co-creating) event, where you hope that participants will come up with a specific output at the end or does the conversation matter more than anything? Do you want participants to argue or to agree with each other? Arguing can really push boundaries further but can also cringe relationships, while agreeing builds relationships but might lead to stagnant thinking. Improvisation theatre’s ‘Yes and approach’ might be a good ‘in-between’ perhaps (see more about ‘Yes And’ in the video at the bottom of part 1 of this blog series)?

Of course, in practice an event tends to borrow to many or all of these dynamics, but overall your event itself probably has a major inclination towards one of these dynamics. Be aware of and perhaps even take control of it as it informs your flow (read more about the flow in part 2 of this blog series). And if you are not sure, just give it a try, go with the flow, let it be. You might fail but no great person in history ever just had successes and it is totally liberating to try out new approaches…

Now on to the matter of the event…

What are we talking about? The content!

What's your content then? Not all of it can be planned like this (Credits: ByronNewMedia/FlickR)

What's your content then? Not all of it can be planned like this (Credits: ByronNewMedia/FlickR)

Finally, assuming you have an overall focus for the event, how are you going to source content matter to chew on. Remember: process and content are the two wings of your event bird. Too much content and not enough process means potentially a terribly ineffective and boring event; but too much process and no content means everyone’s really wasting their time.

Where does content come from?
It can come from previous work (publications, reports, films, previous workshop) and ideally should include different formats (written, video, audio) to cater for different learning styles (see more on this in learning cycles basics and on ‘what is learning’). This is usually a key source for technical events – although again overloading too much content into your event usually means less time and space for interaction and leads to this

But a much more powerful source of content comes from event interactions themselves:

  • From questions that are raised by participants. Questions are particularly powerful as they do not close conversations but open them up to other areas. The art of powerful questions can be a great guide in this.
  • From conversations that take place inside the event – as part of the sessions – and outside (it can be useful to ask participants what their reflections are after a coffee break or at the beginning of the day). One of the key objectives of an interactive event is to precisely elicit that content from on-site conversations;
  • From the process documentation and social reporting taking place and unfolding conversations with the outside world: social reporters tweet or blog about their reflections or observations about the event, intriguing statements or strong quotes etc. They put the word from the event out to a wider arena. Both this content created on the side of the event and their interactions with outsiders can feed the event with interesting questions and comments that provide more, interesting content.

Your content will keep on morphing throughout the event. And it’s probably for the better. So long as you keep your objectives/outcomes in mind. With all these elements in mind, you are now ready to think about which facilitation methods will be useful – which is the object of the next post in this series.

The presentation below, ‘Organizing effective events and conversations‘ summarises a number of the aspects touched upon here.

Related blog posts:


The chemistry of magical facilitation (2) – Put the bossy herald to play for you

Facilitation is the art of seamlessly inviting all contributions to collective sense-making. As such it is an essential element of knowledge sharing, knowledge management and social learning.

So, in the previous chapter of this series, we’ve looked at the big picture of facilitation, how to handle the BOSSY HERALD, particularly in its bossy part. Let’s assume we’re there, we’ve dealt with the politics of the event. Now comes the moment to apply the design in practice i.e. to focus on the HERALD (part) in detail, and to put it to play for you. This moves the reflection from ‘what should be?’ to ‘what could be’. The herald determines the ballpark you play with. Each of its pointers helps you design the workshop in a more appropriate and operational way.

In this second chapter, I’m looking at the first three pointers of the HERALD: How-to/heuristics (facilitation tools and approaches) very briefly, Extent (duration) and Running the event (the facilitator/s).

Proces design and facilitation, a complex ballpark (credits: The Value Web/FlickR)

Proces design and facilitation, a complex ballpark (credits: The Value Web/FlickR)

How-to and heuristics (the tools)

As much as knowledge management is about tools – once, and only once everything else has been dealt with and thoughtful decisions have been taken – facilitation is all about facilitation methods and approaches, once the politics and design is by and large dealt with. In a way How-to and heuristics thus come as the final part of this puzzle – once all other blocks are covered. But it is a very powerful part of the puzzle and one on which you have a lot of control as organiser or facilitator. I will deal with the choice of tools and approaches in a subsequent post (chapter 3 of this series) so I won’t look in detail into this. Just want to highlight that the exact set of facilitation methods, tools and heuristics generally reflects and derives from the other elements from the HERALD:

  • Extent: The length of the event itself points to a specific set of facilitation methods or a specific way of applying a given method;
  • Running the event facilitation: How much can you and should you challenge your preferred facilitation style or push yourself to new limits?
  • Attendance: In line with the participants’ profile, how much can you and should you challenge the expectations of your participants regarding the overall facilitation approach at the event?
  • Location: How the venue itself lends itself to using the space and organising tables and group work;
  • Dynamics: How does the dynamics of the event affect the choice of specific facilitation methods?
Facilitation methods mapped for an event design (credits: me)

Facilitation method set-up mapped for an event design (credits: me)

Pay close attention to these elements before you come back choosing  facilitation tools and approaches.

Extent (the duration)

How long will your event last? How many events/episodes will you be having? Here, keeping the beat and the flow in check is all that matters. If you don’t, you risk losing your audience and it can be quite tricky to win it back. Look at your final destination and manage those poles.

The flow is the path that you are following during that event, which you can see as a voyage on which participants are embarking. You will have to clearly mark the beginning, the middle and the end of that voyage. Along the way, you have different standposts (the various workshops sessions), milestones (the achievements around significant blocks of your event) and stop-overs to break the voyage in manageable chunks. These standposts, milestones and stop-overs are essential for your participants to keep the beat. Here are a few considerations to make the journey as pleasant for your participants:

  • Mention where it is they are supposed to get at the end of your journey (the objectives and outcomes of your meeting) – that clarity relates to the focus of the event and you might even invite your participants to discuss the focus so as to surface additional ideas or concerns;
  • If you’re having an event that builds upon another one (and another one etc.), link the various events to one another to clearly to give that sense of the voyage to the participants: where you have been, what milestones you have achieved, what you’re focusing on now and where you will be in the next event – and how the different events are linked. And re-state how much of the overall voyage you intend to cover with this event – like a stage on a pilgrimage. This makes it easier for your participants to maximise their time however they please and to appease their potential anxiousness to achieve. If people worry too much about being productive and the time they have at hand, they are not in the ‘here and now’ the ‘mindfulness’ that is key to strong engagement.
  • Make sure that each stand post (session) also clearly follows the sequence ‘introduction – middle – end’. Event facilitation follows a fractal pattern where this sequence mirrors itself at various scales (workshop, day of workshop, session etc.). You have to link up these scales, show how one session builds into the day and into the workshop, give a sense of how the whole is bigger than the sum of the parts. It makes most participants happy with the achievement and the sense of ‘going forward’ and not just ‘talking’. You’re taking the anxiousness to achieve away from them.
  • Make it clear also when a milestone is achieved – a particular agreement, a write-up etc. Celebration builds the team dynamics and adds energy to everyone. If, in practice, you have not gone as far as planned but really need to achieve a particular milestone, either build space in your event to achieve it milestone or explain how it will be finalised and achieved after the event – there is much fear of seeing workshops turn into talk shops with no action among all of us event-goers.
  • Whether your workshop follows a straight path and there’s no going astray, or whether you are open to changing your path as you please and remain flexible, tell your participants how ‘set’ or flexible their journey is likely to be.
Sam Kaner's Diamond of participation (Credits: Chris Corrigan/FlickR)

Sam Kaner's Diamond of participation (Credits: Chris Corrigan/FlickR)

Another underground flow is running in parallel: that flow relates to the degree of clarity and agreement (or consensus) for the participants. thisa relates to Sam Kaner‘s famous “diamond of participation” diagram (see graph on the right). Be aware that it will almost undoubtedly happen, especially if your event runs for more than a day. In a week’s workshop, it will almost surely be at the middle of the week, when participants are too far away from the energy of the beginning and the final destination is not yet in sight…

The beat is the energy that you (and particularly your participants) have to run that pathway. There are a few things that help along that pathway to keep the beat:

  • The clarity on the final destination and on the main stop-overs on this voyage, as mentioned above;
  • Developing a sense of the group. Ice breakers are great in this sense, particularly those that explore some personal details, anything that gives more information about participants than their professional ‘function’ (there is a person behind that professional). Group work is also great as it brings people to get to know each other and effectively collaborate (thereby bringing much stronger bonding than just talking). Humour and informality help too, it breaks down barriers between people. As my boss – a very experienced facilitator himself – says: when a group starts having its own jokes and plays with it, it’s going very well;
  • Your personal energy as a facilitator – the more energised you are the more energy you give your participants. Speak clearly, enthusiastically if possible, add to the fun, move around, look at people in the eyes, engage, show them that you believe in this workshop and in achieving something)!
  • Keep the beat up by organizing energisers and occasional breaks when you see that participants need fresh air. Observe how the group energy is going and feel free to ask your participants how they feel about having a break or doing something different, like going away for a walk (why not even build some sessions around a walk or an interview in the park etc.?).

Running the event (the facilitator/s)

The next bit that matters in the design is: who will be running this event? Who will be facilitating it? If it’s you, that’s easier, because you know yourself, your strengths and weaknesses.

Still, how much ‘up to the task’ are you? How much does the design of the workshop reflect your way of working or not? A first balancing act here: between alignment and authenticity. How much have you played to your strengths and how much have you challenged your comfort zone? A delicate balance to strike here. Obviously, playing to your strengths means you are more likely to do things well. But you need to keep yourself sharp – and keep the events interesting for you as facilitator over time too – so how much are you stretching yourself to try out new things?

In practice I find that it’s worth doing something slightly different every time to keep the show interesting.

The facilitator: a multi-faceted, multi-skilled animator

The facilitator: a multi-faceted, multi-skilled animator

If someone else is facilitating – or perhaps if someone else helps you facilitate – what is their profile?

Here are a few things to review for yourself first, when selecting or hiring an external facilitator:

  • How high profile is your event going to be? How much will failures be tolerated?
  • How heavy on facilitation is your event going to be?
  • How intercultural is your event going to be?
  • How flexible should your event be?
  • How interactive is your event going to be?
  • How large is your group of participants going to be?
  • How tense is your event likely to be?

The more your event follows these characteristics, the more experienced a facilitator you will need.

Experienced facilitators usually have enough distance to manage tensions and readjustments with flair and fun – and they critically know WHEN to readjust, they hopefully are socially intelligent enough that they can pick up intercultural communication clues, they are used to interactive methods to the extent that they have no trouble explaining sub-group facilitators what their task is, they can handle large groups and they know how to manage tensions – whether appeasing them or precisely releasing and dealing with them rather than letting a ‘passive-agressive’ atmosphere develop. An instrumental skill that facilitators – experienced or not – should develop and nurture is the art of listening. It is their main tool to gather clues about the event climate and the need to readjust. Listening is not just auditory, it also means listening with your eyes: scanning the room around to see if people are engaging, deciphering body language to find out who is irritated, sad, tired, out of focus, stirring up trouble (rare but happens)… Another useful skill is that of synthesising and of paraphrasing, asking questions (even disarmingly simple ones) to address the concerns and issues that the participants are probably dealing with at the same time. Clarity of elocution is another essential skill: speaking clearly, loud enough, not too fast, paraphrasing what was said to synthesise it and asking the participants if everying is clear and if they have any question. And as mentioned above, openness and humour for fun, fun and fun are other must-haves. If your event is ‘facilitation-heavy‘ (demanding), It might even be a good idea to hire a couple of facilitators. Facilitation takes a lot of attention. Having a couple of facilitators is useful in many ways:

Two facilitators make the process stronger (credits: sreisaat/FlickR)

Two facilitators make the process stronger (credits: sreisaat/FlickR)

  • It helps prepare more quickly the materials and instructions (there is usually a number of flipchart sheets to prepare, posters, colour cards and the likes etc.);
  • It brings a variety of facilitation styles to the participants;
  • It helps facilitators facilitate well but also pay careful attention to the energy in the room, the body language of some participants, the signals that are emerging;
  • It keeps the energy of the facilitator up because they have time to charge up their batteries;
  • It makes it easier to organise sub-groups where there is usually a need for a sub-group facilitator (an/or chair, and/or timekeeper);
  • It helps to introduce exercises, make presentations, hold props, mime assignments etc. or even engage in on-the-spot jokes etc.;
  • It helps with the documentation of the event – as one of the facilitators can be documenting the discussions while the other one is indeed organising an exercise.
This sounds like a mountain of details, and truly there is much to the complex art of facilitating, but unveil the facilitation onion layer by layer. Embrace what you can now and leave the rest for later. A lot of it will become tacit knowledge in due time.

In the second part of this second chapter, I will examine the attendance (the participants), the location and the dynamics of the event, the other three crucial elements to make the HERALD play for you… and also the information that the herald governs, the content matter that is addressed in the event.

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The chemistry of magical facilitation (1) – mind the BOSSY HERALD

I had mentioned that I would sooner or later set my blogging foot again on facilitation island and would seek the island’s treasure trove to trace the original chemistry that makes magical facilitation happen. Well, I guess I’ve just landed on the island and am now on my way to find the trove.
Facilitation magic takes the power of the collective to the next level [Photo credits: mello.luiz/FlickR]

Facilitation magic takes the power of the collective to the next level (Photo credits: mello.luiz/FlickR)

This journey will take four steps:
  1. Mapping the big picture to understand the wide angle and political side of the event you are designing or facilitating – i.e. the subject of this very post;
  2. Tracking the details of that wide angle, to ensure your take on that wide angle and politics is viable and operational;
  3. Zooming in on appropriate facilitation methods to go functional and finally…
  4. Diving in dynamics, at the heart of the workshop, to inject the relational and emotional.

It’s the chemical combination of these four elements that makes your facilitation magical.

Now onto the first part of the event design…
1. The politics and wide angle of magical facilitation – here comes the bossy herald
Whether we like it or not, every event also sets some level of power plays. Someone (possibly a multi-faceted someone) is calling the shots and shaping the agenda. And beyond that politics, there are a few other important ‘wide angle’ elements to take into account. Ignoring this means you might come up with the best workshop design and facilitation but totally miss the point. And make that multi-faceted someone upset. And get participants confused. A total waste… You don’t want to go there. That’s why in this facilitation journey it’s always useful to mind the BOSSY HERALD. Although he’s slightly obnoxious, he reminds you of all the major elements that determine the wide angle of an event. Each letter in the bossy herald stands for a crucial aspect in this wide angle. Let’s inspect this…
The bossy part represents the political side which you cannot afford to neglect:
  • Big picture. Where in the bigger picture does this event fit? Is it a one-off event? Is it integrated with ongoing work? What is the rationale behind it? What drive pushed this event off the orchard of good-ideas-that-have-not-yet-been-used-and-perhaps-never-will? How are you going to tap into the source of inspiration for this event? What will you prepare and expect other people to prepare in this respect?
  • Ownership: Who owns the event? You, the facilitator? Someone else? A group of someone elses? Are they all present around you to discuss the design of the event or do you have to deal with each of them separately (mind the between-hammer-and-anvil scenario)? Do they have an agenda for this event? More importantly, to what extent do your participants own this event? In other words, is there room to co-create the agenda along the way or do you follow a pre-established agenda? How much flexibility is there to shape that agenda along the way?
  • Sharpness: Assuming that you are focusing on an overall theme for the event, how far are you planning to examine the core of the matter and its edges? How much are you hoping to explore your field? Are you hoping to expand the understanding of the matter at hand laterally (getting more people on board, levelling the field of knowledge) or vertically (delving more in depth in the pool of  knowledge)?
  • Spectrum: To what extent does the content of your overall event’s theme constitute your bull’s eye? Are you interested in the content only? Or do you also have a keen eye for the process surrounding the event e.g. do you also want to stimulate teambuilding, strengthen partnerships, raise awareness about the who-is-who in this field etc.?
  • Yearnings: What are the deep expectations that you (and the people owning your event) have for this event? What outcome should it lead to? What products are you hoping to see come out of this? What non-negotiable outputs should be achieved? What other outputs and outcomes would you ideally like or love to see? Should the event lead to specific concrete written outputs (a report, an article, an action plan, a declaration) at all or should it focus on the innovative and creative exploration of your subject, or other intangibles? Is your event aiming at efficiency or effectiveness? Can you picture what would be your ideal outcome / story of change for this event?
Once you’ve taken care of the bossy part, the herald part covers other important wide angle aspects:
  • How-to and heuristics: Take stock of what you have gathered with your bossy analysis. What approach does your experience and common sense dictate you to follow – what is your heuristic for this event, if any? How much do you have to align with the political and wide angle agenda and in contrast how authentic to your own style and aspirations can you afford to be? What tools and approaches seem to make sense in this context?
  • Extent: What about the length of the event? Is it lasting 2 hours, 2 days or 2 weeks? Is it a one-off event or one component or block in a series of mutually reinforcing events? If the latter, how much are you going to cover with this event?
  • Running the event: Who will be facilitating the event? Are there support facilitators? How experienced are all the facilitators involved? The numbers and experience of facilitators has an impact on the level of interactivity that you can design (the more interactive, the more experienced and numerous facilitators you need; some specific methods may require prior experience because they follow a very well codified approach). To what extent can you/they deal with overt or subtle tension? With a large group? With high profile participants?
  • Attendance: What is the profile of your participants? Who is actually coming? Volunteer participants or corporate recruits to a compulsory event? How much do they know each other? How much do they know about the topic? Do they come from the same institutions or different ones? Do they have similar or different professional functions? Is there a hierarchy among them and should it matter in this workshop? Are they all working on the same initiative? Are there tensions among them? Do they speak the same language? How much common culture do they share?
  • Location: Where is the event taking place? Is the venue modular / changeable or is it fixed in a static way (as those conference rooms with translation facilities and a fixed set of desks chained to one another)? Do you have any possibility for group work (break-out rooms, use of outside facilities etc.)? How does the acoustics work? Will you need a microphone?
  • Dynamics: Based on all the above comes a somewhat underrated but extremely crucial consideration: What kind of conversation dynamics do you want to foster? Informing conversations? Reacting on information? Exploring and blue-skying? Questioning or criticising? Co-creating? Arguing or following a ‘yes and’ approach? This is all related to the relatively static or dynamic nature of your event and the need for a seasoned facilitator. Then again, no seasoned facilitator got where they are without trying things out and without failing, so feel free to follow the ‘yes and’ rule (see video below) and throw yourself (or your not so seasoned facilitator) in the event!
For any event, find your way through the pointers of the bossy herald – but don’t overlook him, he’s the maker and breaker of events. All the rest is marbles and bubbles in comparison.

In the next post in this series, we’ll look at the practical implications of the herald in your event.

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